Akaka, Melissa Archpru and Dana L. Alden (2010), “Global Brand Positioning and Perceptions: International Advertising and Global Consumer Culture,” International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 37-56.


Global consumer culture is recognised as a collection of common signs and symbols (e.g. brands) that are understood by significant numbers of consumers in urban markets around the world. International advertising is a powerful driving force of this evolving phenomenon. However, scholars have suggested that more comprehensive theoretical frameworks are needed to better understand international advertising in the global environment. Global consumer culture positioning (GCCP) and perceived brand globalness (PBG) represent two important constructs for studying international advertising in the context of global consumer culture. This review of GCCP and PBG highlights their past application and future potential for advancing international advertising theory, research and practice. It also sheds light on the long-standing standardisation versus adaptation debate.