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Vargo, Stephen L., Melissa Archpru Akaka (2012), “Value Co-creation and Service Systems (Re)formation: A Service Ecosystems View,” Service Science, 4(3), 207-217.


This research explores an S-D logic, service-ecosystems approach to studying value co-creation and the (re)formation of service systems. We outline the central premises of S-D logic and elaborate the concept of a service ecosystem to propose a framework that focuses on resource integration as a central means for connecting people and technology within and among service systems. This ecosystems view emphasizes the social factors that influence, and are influenced by service-for-service exchange. We draw on systems theory and a structurational model of technology to underscore the importance of networks of actors, as well as institutions – e.g., rules, social norms, etc. – as critical components of service systems. We argue that this service-ecosystems framework provides a robust and dynamic approach for studying resource integration, value co-creation and the (re)formation of service systems, and provides important insights for systematically innovating service.